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Four Cs of Diamonds.

Updated: Jul 11, 2023

Fine diamonds are among the world's most coveted gemstones. To determine a diamond's value, experts use the Four Cs of diamonds—cut, color, clarity, and carat weight.

diamond clarity

Cut (Four Cs of Diamonds.)

A diamond’s overall proportions, as well as the size and position of its facets, make up the cut. The consistency and balance of these can greatly affect how the stone captures light and reflects it back to the eye.

Studies have been conducted to find the optimum proportions of a diamond’s cut so that it has the greatest amount of sparkle. If its cut falls within these parameters, it is considered an ideal cut. Commonly used terms regarding refraction and light:

diamond grading information

  • Brilliance—the combination of all of the white light reflected from the surface and the inside of the diamond.

  • Dispersion—flashes of color you see in a polished diamond. Dispersion is also known as fire.

  • Scintillation—flashes of light you see when the diamond, the light, or the observer moves.


One factor that determines the value of a diamond is its color. With the exception of fancy-colored diamonds, the most valuable diamonds are those with the least color. Although many people think of gem-quality diamonds as colorless, completely colorless diamonds are very rare.

chart for diamond color

Each letter grade represents a range of color that is determined by a manual process of comparing the diamond to a master set.


Four Cs of Diamonds. clarity is measured by the existence or absence of visible flaws. Tiny surface blemishes or internal inclusions, even those seen only under magnification, can alter the brilliance of the diamond and thus affect its value.

description on diamond clarity

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